There were-and still are-three convergent lines of pro­ gress on which good expectations were based. The first is con­ tinued progress in the accumulation of ethnographical data and the refinement of ethnological conclusions, shedding light on the origin and development of the Chinese people. This traces the infusion, all through history, of other races and elements, and shows ever more clearly the results in terms of the exchange and interpenetration of social and cultural ideas and institutions.