The British developments of trade unionism and co-operation helped to mould the labour movement all over the world.

The British inventions of cables, railways and steamships ~nade the whole world one great trading area and ushered in a revolution in commerce and international trade. While Great Britain influenced all production with her machinery, she revolutionized all distribution by her developments in mechanical transport and this again ushered in the second stage of the industrial revolution which witnessed the spread of machinery to practically every important trade, the organization of international businesses, international combines, and international labour movements. With this there was an increased national rivalry to obtain control of the raw material and food producing areas since the resources of the world could be easily developed or exploited from any one centre. The result was the emergence of a new national economic imperialism due to the desire to get a control ot monopoly of commodities limited in amount which cut across the new internationalism created by the increased possibilities of exchange. There was a reaction from world economics to imperial economics, the aim being self-sufficiency within large areas and yet, on the other hand, there was the increasing interdependence of the world.