OF the European Great Powers France began to modernizeitself as a result of the French Revolution: Germany followed in the first half of the nineteenth century; but Russia, immune from the effects of the French Revolution, did not begin to become modernized till after the middle of the century. The three great transforming processes were the emancipation of the serfs, by which the bulk of the

Russian population became free, the coming of the railways, and the transition from a natural to a money economy. Of these three processes the emancipation of the serfs has already been dealt with.'