Cognisant of the practices of previous campaigns, especially those of Edward VI, Elizabeth set about dislodging the French. Her preparations were not dissimilar to those o f Charles I eighty years later. First, she secured Berwick. Second, she saw to northern defences. Third, she built a Scottish alliance. Fourth, Edinburgh Castle was kept out of the enemy’s hands.3 Facing a grave military challenge at the outset of her reign, the Queen quickly became acquainted with the disagreeable and expensive demands of war. The Scottish campaign of 1560 also set the tone for her entire reign: she preferred to settle matters by diplomacy but would use military force when necessary, even though operational control might be exercised capriciously by her commanders.4 Elizabeth I, therefore, learned very early on about campaigning. Many old soldiers and sagacious nobles realised survival depended upon the Q ueen’s familiarity with martial matters. One courtier cautioned the young Queen:

The Duke of Norfolkes granfather was sent by the King, your father, to invade Scotland, well accompanied both with good headds and with a good nombre: an army also by sea went into the Frithe, well furnished with victualles to releive the army by land at theire

comyng to Edenborow, which the army by land was not able to do for lacke, and yet as much was done for the furtherance of the jorney as might be. In the Duke of Somersettes tyme, the victory was not folowed in Scotland for lacke. . . . [D]o considre what an enemy besides the French men, yea, and peradventure the Scotts, first the weather will be to your people and to there horses.