G. CODA Having the four hypotheses of the four causes of emotion, the integration asked for in the first chapter takes place as follows: Emotion is 'symbol', 'energy', 'psyche' and 'transformation' as described above. Each emotion has: its own pattern of behaviour and quality of experience which is always a total attitude of the whole psyche (causa formalis); its own distribution and intensity of energy in the field of the human body situation (causa materialis),· its own symbolic stimulus which is partly conscious and partly not presented to consciousness (causa efficiens),· its own achieved transformation which has some survival value and is some improvement compared with nonemotional states (causa finalis). These four causes correspond with each other. The quality and pattern of an emotion is only that quality and pattern given by a specific symbol which in tum corresponds with the specific organization and intensity of energy and a specific kind of transformation. What makes an emotion 'joy' and not 'disgust' or 'shame' always depends upon the specific constellation of the four causes. The causes correspond to each other because, in fact, each is emotion itself in one of its aspects. As de La Chambre1 in the seventeenth century and Duchenne2 in the nineteenth asserted, each emotion has its own peculiar characteristics of expression which accord with the purposeful result being achieved. Although using different language, modem studies so well represented in Dunbar's massive compendium (EBC) show that different constellations of factors-energy balance, psychological attitudes, symbolic situations, symptomatic behaviour results-correspond with different emotions. More exact coordination of the factors, that is, the analysis of an emotion, awaits deeper understanding of the causa efficiens and causa forma/is in particular. Practically also our theory suggests that the more collective the causa efficiens (the symbol), the more typical the pattern of behaviour and the more statistically average the energy organization. Thus, studies on the more primitive emotions like fear and rage lend themselves better to experimental methods. Our theory also suggests why the concept of emotion has become central to the problems of our time. If emotion is the meeting place of physical energy and the soul and if it also has to do with symbols and the transformation of the person, then the contemporary dissolution of symbols and the problems of transformation of modem man will be reflected there (Chapter XIX). Further, this theory accounts on a general level for psychosomatic symptoms, which can be mani-

festationsintherealmofphysicalenergyofthetransformationsof thesoul,includingthosetransformationsinvolvingthesoul'smost metaphysicalandreligioussymbols.-Withthesesuggestionsand intuitionswecometotheend.Thisisacodaandacodais'apassage addedafterthenaturalcompletionofamovement,soastoforma moredefiniteandsatisfactoryconclusion'(OED).Tofulfilthis, then,wecancondenseourresult:emotionisthattransformationof theenergyoftheconventionalsetwhichisachievedbythewholepsyche andwhichisinitiatedbyasymbol.