WHAT can be done to help children who are in such difficulties? The initial step in every instance is to try to understand the child-his needs, his interests, his abilities, his wishes and the degree to which the formative influences in his life have been directed towards the frustration or the satisfaction of his requirements. The immediate advantage of such an attempt at understanding is that it may reveal to the child for the first time that someone is genuinely interested in him and concerned about his welfare. It is also likely to result in greater sympathy on the part of the adult. Its danger is that it may over-emphasise a passing m~sdemeanour and concentrate attention on a bad habit which will more easily be dropped if it is forgotten.