AT this point a return'may be made to the subject-matter of Chapters I and II. Within the last thirty years very great developments have occurred in the accuracy with Which both intelligence and personal characteristics can be assessed. It is now possible for a skilled observer, using test material whose validity and reliability have been established, to obtain information as to present performance much more fairly and accurately in an hour or two than he could have done formerly in many months with the unstandardised methods of ordinary class-room or family contacts.