FROM the time of the publication of Bernstein's criticisms in the late nineties until the First World War began, a battle royal was waged between the upholders of the revisionist point of view and the Marxists. Various critics within and without the social democratic ranks joined forces with Bernstein in their attacks on certain phases of the Marxian philosophy. These included Tugan-Baranowsky, Jean Jaurès, Werner Sombart, T . G. Masaryk, first president of Czecho-Slovakia, Paul Barth, and Franz Oppenheimer.