The Europeanizing forces at work in recent decades in the Near East, as in other parts of the world outside Europe, have been the same everywhere. The transformation now in progress all over the world is thus essentially a uniform process. For all that, there are important differences of detail. For all their uniformity, the forces at work have been operating in different environments, and their detailed operation has been conditioned by factors differing from place to place—such factors as the political system, the geographical situation, the national character. Consequently the process of Europeanization has followed, for instance, varying courses in Turkey and in Egypt, in Syria and in the Hedjaz. The fundamental process, however, has been the same—that of adaptation to the intellectual, economic, and social elements of existence which have spread over the world from Western Europe.