This chapter moves beyond an examination of the participation of individuals and the strategies used by pressure groups to highlight examples of the practices of participatory democracy and collective action through movements for change in Australia. Major established movements such as the labour, women's, environment, indigenous, gay and lesbian, global justice and peace movements will be discussed here. We will also examine the conservative, neoliberal movements that formed to respond to and reject the forms of participatory democracy advocated by progressive movements for change. Social movements share four dimensions: an active network of individuals groups and organisations; a sense of shared identity; a conflict with powerful political actors; and the use of protest and direct action strategic repertoires.