This final data analysis chapter investigates the extent to which varieties of patriarchy shape socio-economic transformation. Using comparative analysis, it demonstrates the important role played by premodern domestic patriarchy in shaping the proletarianisation process, subsistence earnings and urban wage levels, labour supply, and capital accumulation strategies. The chapter further elaborates on the strategies developed by the Turkish bourgeoisie in response to the conditions imposed by varieties of patriarchy, as well as considering the implications for state formation. Counter to the essentialist accounts of culture and religion, the chapter further points to the significance of varieties of patriarchy in upholding the gender-based exclusionary characteristics of the cultural and religious settings irrespective of the dominant religion.