The chapter examines China’s claim and activities in the SCS from ancient times to the present day. China uses folklore, myths and legends as well as history to support its territorial and maritime claims in the SCS. China has been using different methods to pursue its objectives, including a delaying strategy and increased assertiveness. The strategy is evident from its pursuance of bilateral negotiations with the littoral states and holding dialogue with ASEAN through the DOC and COC. Beijing has also used the BRI to enhance its soft power and at the same time increase its presence in the SCS through naval exercises and physical installations, such as land reclamations and building artificial islands. Though China is assertive and adamant on its claims, it does not want to forcefully occupy the entire SCS for different reasons, including the possibility of other claimant states inviting other powers to interfere on the issue. It is not in China’s interest to internationalize the dispute. What China does is salami slicing, thereby gradually increasing its activities before a solution is achieved, either amicably or otherwise.