After J. B. Watson, behaviorism became the rage among American psychologists, and since his time, most eminent learning theorists, such as Guthrie, Skinner, and Hull, have been behaviorists. The behavioristic attack on the introspective method of Wundt and Titchener resulted in an almost complete abandonment of introspectionism. At about the same time the behaviorists were attacking introspection in America, a group of psychologists began attacking its use in Germany. This small group of German psychologists called themselves Gestalt psychologists. As the behavioristic movement is thought to have been launched by Watson’s article “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It,” which appeared in 1913, the Gestalt movement is thought to have been launched by Max Wertheimer’s article on apparent motion, which appeared in 1912.