For five centuries (1000–1500), Panjab witnessed sporadic warfare owing to annexations, invasions and rebellions. In the wake of the Ghaznavid rule, the region acquired greater linkages with the lands beyond the Indus. With the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, it became home to a bulk of immigrants, who were pushed out from their homelands in Mongol ravages. The new regime, having overcome the barriers to its existence, adopted diverse ways of consolidating its power. In due course, the situation became ripe for some local elements – tribal chiefs, zamindars and Sufis – to associate with the state, which had attained stability and strength. The mercantile networks, owing to the perennial demand for quality horses, learnt to survive in all conditions. Concomitant with these developments, a cultural transformation had been taking place owing the institutionalization of Sufi establishments. Evidence of these historical changes was found in a variety of primary documentation – official chronicles, Sufi literature (manuals, biographies, discourses and poetry), and folklore.