This chapter begins with a general introduction to the origins and history of the World Heritage Convention. Then it shifts into a discussion of the way in which World Heritage sites are inscribed on the list, highlighting the requirements which must be met in order to ensure a successful listing. However, as this process has resulted in inequalities within the list, particularly in relation to a prevalence of European heritage, this chapter also presents the reasons for this as well as the actions taken to ameliorate the situation. Finally, the connection between World Heritage and tourism is very briefly introduced, followed by a general presentation of the outline of the book.