The purpose of this chapter is to examine the effects of gender in sport and physical activity. The author defines sex and gender, and then explores the representation of women in leadership positions in sport. Across a variety of contexts, research shows that, relative to men, women are less likely to be members of the workforce, they receive less compensation for their work, and they are less likely to hold upper-echelon management positions. These trends are present in the sport and physical activity context. The discussion then moves to multilevel factors influencing gender in the work environment. Macro-level factors include employment and antidiscrimination laws, institutional sexism, and stakeholder expectations. Bias in decision-making, organizational culture, power relations, and diversity policies are all meso-level factors. Finally, micro-level factors include capital investments and self-limiting behaviors. The final section includes a discussion of gender, sport, and physical activity participation.