In order for a person to engage in both primary and secondary control, to change the world and change the self, people construct a set of assumptions about the world which make life seem predictable. Gross misfortune violates these assumptions, throwing ontology open to question and rendering one’s sense of reality tenuous, thereby making one feel vulnerable; a broad feeling of powerlessness ensues. La violencia called many basic beliefs into question: “How can one explain all the massacres? What happened to our protective spirits?” (Manz 1988:92).