In a somewhat different fashion from the policy instrument of special rights policy which focused on what to do and how, passport policy was taking shape based on discussions about where to go and how to get there. Passport policy was firmly embedded in the market paradigm, as became particularly apparent in the white paper. The SEA had established new incentives for community action as well as an institutional framework for the community approach as it favored commission initiative based on Article 8a EEC Treaty. However, since passport policy was about borders, it involved questions of police and security and hence contributed to citizenship practice spilling over into the areas of justice and home affairs.