86 The era of consolidation [200 BCE to 200 BCE] concluded with the beginnings of the spread of Indian influence in Southeast Asia. Beginning from the second century CE to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, all the kingdoms and peoples of Southeast Asia from Myanmar to the myriad islands of Southeast Asia, barring the Philippines, adopted the Indian system of thought, language and script, literature, arts, court protocol, sculpture, and urban architecture and superimposed them on the cultural substructure they already had. The cultural consolidation brought about in India made its transference to Southeast Asia easier than otherwise . . . (pages 87–88)