Another type of international change involves shifts in the character of states. Whereas Gilpin's "systems" change refers to transformations in the types of unit-such as change from empire to nation-state-the focus here is on long-term change in the nature of states themselves: absolutist states, constitutional monarchies, fascist states, liberal-democratic, late-industrial

2. For a discussion of identity issues in the ongoing debate between neorealism and its critics, see Jonathan Mercer, "Anarchy and Identity," International Organization vol. 49, no. 2 (Spring 1995):229-252.