The Iberian Peninsula became part of the Roman Empire in 26 b.c. after two centuries of war. Rome fought first against the Carthaginians in the First and Second Punic Wars (264–241 b.c. and 218–201 b.c., respectively, the latter waged primarily in Spain) and then against the local peninsular peoples. Spain was unified for the first time under Rome, which created a political and bureaucratic structure in the new colony that endured for almost 400 years. Rome ruled through governors set up in the seven provinces into which the peninsula was eventually divided. New cities were created, and existing ones were expanded as centers for romanization in which the various indigenous peoples were amalgamated into a single society.