The use of psychotropic medication, at least on a long-term basis, with children under 6 years of age is a sensitive topic for most caregivers. We are probably most concerned about the possibility that an immature and rapidly developing body may be at greater risk for adverse drug reactions than either older children or adults. Moreover, it is often difficult to accept the fact that a child so young needs to take medication on a regular basis. It is important to know, however, that in spite of these concerns, psychotropic drugs are often prescribed for young children and that they are generally safe and effective. Because early childhood is recognized as a very special period of development for many reasons, a separate discussion of the use of medication with young children for the treatment of behavior disorders (primarily hyperactivity) is presented here. Before addressing this topic, it is probably useful to have a basic understanding of some of the issues associated with pharmacotherapy during early childhood and a general idea of the kinds of drugs that are most commonly prescribed.