Diseases are generally attributed to the action of magic, practised either by the man’s enemies or a sorcerer (muloyi). If an accident happens to a man in Johannesburg in the mines, many Leŋge believe that his enemies began to kill him at home before he started. This is often the cause of the bad language used at funeral ceremonies, when the relations of the dead man will revile the supposed murderer and heap obscene epithets upon him. But if a sorcerer is suspected usually nothing is done, though when the memory of the Ŋgoni invasions was still fresh in the minds of the people and he happened to be one of the Ŋgoni, he would have been killed. It is believed that his shade (ndzuti) can come by night and cut the finger-nails and toes of a corpse, mix them with ‘medicine’ and put them in a tiny bag of python skin (nteve) which is worn on the neck to protect a murderer from the consequences of his act. Blood is sprinkled on the floor of the hut where any one lies dead to prevent the sorcerer from entering.