Like Clavreul, Robert J. Stoller also believes that the perverse couple is only illusory. He has shown how perversions are a way of expressing—— but also of controlling and softening—a profound hostility towards the other. This hatred, evident in sadistic acts, permeates every form of perversion, which is always the result of an interaction between hostility and sexual desire. The pervert’s partner—accomplice or victim—is a replacement for the parent, against whom paraphilic individuals manifest their resentment.