After reading Chapter 4, you should be able to:

Describe how crime was understood and responded to in the preclassical era.

Explain the logic and reasoning of the founders of the classical school of criminology.

Discuss contemporary research assessing the deterrence doctrine, explaining both distinct research methodologies and findings.

Display a proficient vocabulary of concepts incorporated in contemporary deterrence research.

Define hot spots and discuss how they are addressed through focused deterrence programs and Stop, Question, Frisk practices.

Explain routine activities theory as it applies to both victims and offenders.