Chapter 3 covers seizures of persons; the Fourth Amendment distinction between voluntary encounters, Terry investigatory stops, and arrests; grounds for initiating each type of encounter; the scope and limitations on Terry stops, checkpoint stops, and traffic stops, including pretextual traffic stops; requirements for a valid arrest warrant; when arrest warrants are required; requirements for executing arrests warrants; special requirements for arrests inside a residence; Fourth Amendment restrictions on excessive force; and patterns in state arrest laws.