This chapter examines study abroad as a form of student mobility as a high-impact educational experience through the internationalization of higher education. National and institutional policies worldwide promote internationalization through focusing on the international and intercultural dimensions in higher education. Against the backdrop of globalization and rising student mobility, this chapter focuses on study abroad programs originating from the United States and examines how program design can influence the integration of its participants into the host country. As a high-impact educational practice in the United States, the national rationales of study abroad have moved from emphasized political rationales to economic competitiveness to global cooperation and competitiveness over the last century. In Japan, national policies for inbound student mobility focus on increasing numbers to promote internationalization of its higher education system and the creation of international human resources. While the United States lacks a central agency to oversee internationalization efforts, the recent creation of the US Study Abroad Office in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs under the Department of State and voluntary associations, nongovernmental professional organization, and higher education institutions themselves promote increasing study abroad participation rates.