By an ethical argument for the existence of God I mean an argument for his existence at least one of the premises of which is a moral judgment. This may be a very general moral judgment, for example, one to the effect that men have some duties or other. Alternatively, it may be a judgment to the effect that man has certain duties, which he would not have had were there no God. It is then concluded, via a valid argument (in the form of the modus tollendo tollens), that, since he would not have any duties, or, at any rate, these duties, if there were no God, there must be a God. 2 (This kind of argument does not try to deduce the existence of God from ethical premises alone.)