We now turn from the planning of courses to the curriculum as a whole, from the point of view both of the range of learning that a pupil should experience during his or her school career, and of the school’s problems in organising a range of curricula. Both lead to questions such as these. By what criteria can one way of organising the curriculum be preferred to another? How can particular emphases be justified, or particular inclusions or omissions? What is the nature of school subjects and how do they differ from one another? What is gained and lost if a school integrates or groups subjects in this manner or that? What view should be taken of schools’ claims to offer a social and personal education to their pupils, over and above the academic curriculum? Is the so-called ‘hidden curriculum’ part of curriculum at all?