Maddie’s calculus exam is scheduled for Monday. It covers four chapters and eight corresponding lectures. Maddie has read the book and attended the lectures but she has not done any preparation beyond that. She plans to devote every waking minute on Sunday to studying for the exam—or more realistically, a total of four hours for sure. When Sunday rolls around, she works from about 8:00 pm to midnight, studying her class notes and the material she highlighted in the textbook chapters. Exhausted after four hours of studying, she goes to bed thinking she has done a successful job of preparing for the exam.