The last thing that Kathy’s dad said when she set off to college was, “We’re spending a lot of money on your college education, so don’t flunk out.” Those words are ringing through her head as she sits down to study for her first exam in Introduction to Economics, which turns out to be chock full of complicated terms, long equations, and incomprehensible concepts. To make matters worse, she thinks back to class discussions where her classmates seemed to already know the material quite well. Faced with the daunting task of studying her textbook and notes, she has set a goal for herself. She even has written it on an index card that she keeps as a bookmark: “DON’T GET THE LOWEST GRADE IN THE CLASS.”