Cities such as Chicago and Philadelphia are home today to large African-American populations; they are also environments that can make urban dwellers despair of a future in which they can become somebody. The streets are mean, and public spaces are neglected because of indifference and budgetary constraints. Michael Kimmelman, a critic of the contemporary built environment, and particularly how it impinges on the quality of life of low-income neighborhoods, has reviewed the work city governments have done to create parks or refurbish existing areas for walking, running, or playing. The effort to improve public spaces is an indicator that those in charge of city government care and are willing to reverse neglect for the benefit of people who live in blighted neighborhoods. When that happens, communities begin to feel that these public spaces belong to them. In addition, safe parks and playgrounds for young people reduce crime. In a city with many gang-related shootings, Chicago’s new public spaces have remained relatively free of the attacks that typically characterize black neighborhoods.