In 2013, a fire broke out at an illegal orphanage in rural China, resulting in the deaths of seven children. The fire had a galvanising impact in the field of private orphan relief, which had previously been mostly unauthorised, unregulated, and unsupported by state officials. This chapter considers the repercussions of the Lankao fire for the “illegal love” provided by private orphanages and foster homes across China, as well as the impact of more recent restrictions on NGOs in China generally. The initial state response to the Lankao fire indicated that welfare pluralism would be encouraged, with legalisation of and improved support for legitimate care providers. However, this was followed by renewed restrictions on interprovincial foster care, leading to uncertainty about the future permissibility of the foster home model. This uncertainty was compounded when new legislation on foreign-funded NGOs came into force, followed by the closure of multiple, well-respected foster homes. In practice, the previous emphasis on legitimacy seemed to be shifting to a more law-focused approach to regulating private orphan relief. In light of these developments, private providers began to adopt various strategies of localisation, with a view to renegotiating their role in orphan relief.