Chapter 5 demonstrates that the Salamancan view of political order provided an alternative to contemporary and later commonwealth theories that contributed to the formation of the notions of national sovereignty, social contract, and reason of state. Internally, Salamancans imposed moral restrictions against “interior barbarism,” that is, power beyond law. Externally, they included “exterior barbarism“—that is, “barbarian” societies—in the common political order. This chapter also addresses the problems with the Salamancan theories, and how these problems impacted future generations.