A Europeanisation of industrial relations can take place in three arenas: the Social Dialogue between the European umbrella organisations for the employers and the trade unions, which can culminate in European-level quasi-'Eurostate' regulations following negotiations and the legislative response of the Council of Ministers; transnational co-ordination and growing practical integration between sectoral and regional collective bargaining; and procedures for information and consultation in large companies, with a trend toward the conclusion of agreements at the level of the newly-installed EWCs. There are a number of reasons why EWCs are likely to become one of the key pillars of a Europeanisation of industrial relations. Their introduction in line with the requirements of the Directive will open up a negotiating space between EWCs and group managements. Initiatives on issues which lend themselves to a consensual solution, such as health and safety, training or workplace environmental protection, are already in evidence. Our case-studies have also shown that in Italy and Germany in particular, there is a discernible willingness on the part of managements and EWCs to engage in negotiations and, ultimately, to arrive at agreements on these and other issues. Examples include ENI, Hoechst and Schmalbach-Lubeca. An agreement has already been reached between group management and the EWC at Danone on the initiation of such negotiations. And in contrast to the sectoral level, employee representatives (either EWCs or potentially trade unions) are not faced with the lack of a negotiating partner. One pragmatic and necessary initial step for the trade unions would be to establish good communications with EWCs in order to be able to define the choice of issues and substance both of consultation and future negotiations at European level.