The UN Charter requires all member-States to “settle their international disputes by peaceful means” (Article 2(3)). Article 33(1) lists the methods of dispute settlement as “negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means” that States may choose. Further details are specified in the 1899 Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, revised by the Second Hague Peace Conference in 1907. 1 The 1928 General Act for the Pacific Settlement of Disputes, 2 concluded under the auspices of the League of Nations, was accepted by only twenty-three States and was later denounced by Spain (1939), France, the United Kingdom and India (1974), and Turkey (1978). There are also a number of regional instruments, including the 1948 American Treaty on Pacific Settlement (Bogotá Pact) 3 and the 1957 European Convention for the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes. 4