The colonisation of Africa imposed a reorganisation of the economic and political arrangements of the continent which were to prove instrumental to its underdevelopment (Rodney, 1972). The unfortunate reality of decolonisation is that it largely failed to lead to the establishment of viable, democratic African governments capable of meeting the needs and aspirations of their peoples. There has been a growing recognition in Africa that democracy and good governance are both “goods” in their own right and are critical to the achievement of other development goals. Moreover, they are essential to the sustained promotion and protection of human rights and the achievement of development (Sen, 1999). However, there is a general misperception that international agencies can promote democracy and good governance in Africa. UN members voted to establish a democracy fund; and both the World Bank and the G-8 have launched new initiatives to address the problem of corruption as if this largely originates from within the continent. A recent study showed that 95 per cent of firms engaged in corruption in Africa are foreign (ECA, 2016d). The questions are whether these efforts are well-conceived or are they based on the negative narratives about the continent? In addition, are they being pursued in ways that are likely to be effective? In what ways have Africans been involved in or how have they responded to these efforts to determine their future? How will the legacies of history condition African responses to the challenges of the future?