Chapter 4 looks into how different external and internal factors such as geo-strategic environment, nuclear weapons norms, leadership, and management structures influence the evolution and stability of Indian nuclear command and control (C2). The time period under study spans from 1974 to 2013 and is categorised into two evolutionary stages – inception (1974–2003) and growth (2003–2013). The development pattern of Indian nuclear C2 from 1974 to 2013 demonstrates a progression in its delivery systems from aircraft to a variety of land- and sea-based systems. Despite Arihant’s accident in 2017, its development and trials at sea depict a linear progression in overall nuclear C2 development. The chapter highlights two important aspects that could hamper the enduring stability of Indian nuclear C2. First, at the domestic level the military’s direct input appears to be largely missing in Indian nuclear decision making. This translates into possible complications in management of nuclear operations that could render instability to nuclear C2. Another factor of instability emanates from the concerns voiced so far about the reliability of Indian nuclear weapons due to limited nuclear testing. These two factors, if and when addressed, could ensure the stability of nuclear C2 and move it into a state of maturity.