There are over 4,500 postsecondary degree-granting institutions in the United States. As an administrator or potential administrator within the higher education sector, it is important to understand what this industry looks like and how its operations differ by institutional type. This chapter discusses the current organizational structures within higher education in the United States, segmenting the institutions into distinct categories. According to this scheme there are public and private institutions, not-for-profit and for-profit, and two- and four-year institutions. These three segmentations are distinct enough to give the reader an understanding of some of the differences and similarities between higher education institutions in the United States.