Japan built a large empire before World War II consisting of Taiwan, Korea, and eventually Manchuria (Manchukuo), the eastern parts of China and islands in the central Pacific. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Japanese expanded their empire to include much of Southeast Asia. From the perspective of its militarists, Japan’s colonial possessions provided for Japan’s national security and brought in crucial resources for Japan’s economy. But the Japanese also claimed their empire brought progress and modernization to its colonies outside the negative influence of western imperialism. They saw themselves as bringing enlightenment to its subject peoples much as did western empire-builders in Africa and India (Chapters 7 and 9), and their attitude of superiority similar to that of Europeans tainted Japanese encounters within what Japanese came to call the “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.” Much like the course of the colonial policies of European powers, Japan’s self-interest and sense of superiority overwhelmed its Pan-Asian civilizing mission.