Genocide has been a problem throughout history, although the word genocide is a relatively new creation. Ironically, as societies have advanced, genocide has become even more frequent. This chapter describes the conditions under which genocides are likely to occur and why the problem persists. The rise of laws to address the issue of genocide is described as are contemporary examples of genocide. There is also a consideration of how the world has responded, or has failed to respond, to genocide. Issues of justice and genocide are considered within the context of modern genocides in Armenia, Rwanda, the Sudan, and Myanmar. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how future genocides might be prevented.