Soft target hardening is a multifaceted activity. Many venues are resource constrained, so the Effects-Based Hardening system helps prioritize, synchronize, and harmonize hardening activities. Before hardening, we must assess our vulnerabilities, as well as our capabilities. The use of deception in hardening is a new concept, cross applied from the military, as is defense in depth, or layered security that protects the asset with rings of security and trip wires. Physical security at soft target locations encompasses everything from locks to alarms, badging, public address systems, cameras, gunfire detection, and secure ventilation systems. Also, soft target locations may want to explore the establishing of a hold room and or a command center to use in an emergency. In terms of bomb threats, which are on the rise, a new philosophy based on statistics and attacks on fleeing people at exits is to not evacuate. Organizations must have a robust medical program, ready to respond to mass casualty. Citizens are the new first responders; they cannot wait for outside help to render medical care, especially in an active attack situation. Schools, churches, hospitals, malls, churches, hotels, and sports and recreational venues all have unique hardening challenges and needs. Red teaming is a great tool for an outside look at your security posture, a fresh set of eyes. Finally, we can learn much from hardening activities happening around the world to protect citizens, especially from the State Department and United Nations’ counterterrorism divisions.