Two further changes needed to improve the ease with which Japanese could be written and read were script reform and the development of a system of punctuation. The first of these, script reform, was already being discussed in the late Tokugawa Period; during the first twenty years of the Meiji Period, two separate campaigns aimed at replacing Chinese characters with either the phonetic hiragana script or the roman alphabet developed parallel to, and to a certain extent dependent on, the gembun’itchi movement itself.