Until around the middle of the twentieth century life was controlled by men. In Europe and in its colonies and former colonies, which together accounted for most of the world, it was controlled by white men. Politicians, administrators, leading military personnel and business executives were almost all male. The news could be read only by white men. Heroes were white men and heroines were passive creatures regularly needing to be rescued by heroes. The status of the white hero was often emphasised by his having an ethnic sidekick who spoke broken English. 1 Since the middle of the twentieth century colonies have gained independence and non-white people have fought for and won equality before the law. Women have moved from being housewives, secretaries, typists and shop assistants to occupying a wide range of careers. They are doctors, lawyers, politicians, executives and scientists. They are playing a growing variety of sports including tough sports like long-distance running and rough, body-contact games like football.