Chapter 2 examines the origins and development of the juvenile justice system within the framework of critical race theory. It highlights three periods of development: the origination, the inclusion of Black youth, and the “get tough” era. Drawing on the work of predominant scholars in the juvenile justice field, this chapter explains how economic and geographic migration of racial/ethnic groups link to policy changes that have disparate impacts on those same groups of people. The chapter elaborates on how this pattern follows the changes in policies within the juvenile justice system and the disparate impacts of these policy changes.