Chapter 1 presents the general theoretical framework for the study. It discusses critical race theory, highlighting the work of David Theo Goldberg in The Racial State. It connects critical race theory with due process rights for youth. The chapter outlines the role of defense counsel policies in relation to critical race theory and their relationship to racially disparate outcomes of the juvenile justice system. In addition to providing the theoretical framework of critical race theory, the chapter includes a brief overview of empirical studies supporting the application of critical race theory to criminology and the juvenile justice system.