We are constantly exposed to many elements in our environment that can have biological effects. These include pollutants and toxins in the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the water we drink. These pollutants are insidious but can have major effects on antisocial behavior and often compound other existing inequalities, such as socioeconomic status (SES). Moreover, there are many essential nutrients that we require from our diet to develop and maintain a healthy neural system. A lack of any of these nutrients can impact our health and behavior. Chemical imbalances in the body have already been shown to influence behavior. Such imbalances are frequently the result of bad diet and can sometimes be rectified by correcting that diet. This chapter, therefore, will consider the effects of pollution and diet on criminal behavior. Removing or reducing pollution can result in major health benefits, including mental and behavioral health. Moreover, types of food, the body’s ways of processing it, and sensitivities to food additives vary widely from person to person. Many people are allergic or intolerant to some dietary components, and this alone can affect behavior. This variation between people is often biologically based, although the trigger, the food, is environmental. The objectives of this chapter are to consider various toxins and dietary components and to examine their effect on the body and subsequent behavior, with a view to considering potential intervention strategies.