This book is the second collective research achievement of the research group on the social stratification structure in contemporary China of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. It is a follow-up to the Research Report on Social Strata in Contemporary China. The previous book was based on 11,000 sample survey questionnaires conducted in 10 counties and cities across the country, and the data and materials from nearly 1000 interviews with members of various strata made by the research group. This book is mainly based on the data and materials of 6,000 sample questionnaires conducted by the research group in 2001 and 2002. So, it is also an exploratory work based on empirical research. The following is an exposition of the theme, significance, research methods, and findings of this book and of the trends of development.