This book is the result of the major project Research on Innovation of Contemporary China’s Social Management System financed by the National Social Science Fund of China.2 It is also the fourth research report presented by the research group on social structure change in contemporary China, following the completion of Research Report on Social Strata in Contemporary China (2002), Social Mobility in Contemporary China (2004), and Social Structure in Contemporary China (2010). Over the past more than two years since 2010, the members of the research group conducted in-depth investigations in urban and rural areas such as Chengdu City in Sichuan province; Taicang City in Jiangsu province; Shenzhen, Guangzhou, and the City of Hainan in Guangdong province; Chaoyang, Daxing, and Shunyi Districts in Beijing; and the county of Yanqing. A large amount of literature has been studied. Well-known experts in relevant fields have been invited to hold more than 10 seminars. After several drafts, this research report is finally completed.