A comparison of the job descriptions (see Appendix) and the DoDDS instructional objectives indicates that optimum use of the kinds of automated systems common in libraries today requires both computer literacy and computer science competencies, as those are defined in the DoDDS document. The case studies from the Phoenix Public Library in Chapter 4 and the Joseph F. Smith Library in Chapter 5 will demonstrate different management strategies for utilizing personnel with the requisite skills for computer operation and maintenance, for as Chapter 1 indicates, there is reason to believe that librarians, while rising in their modal level of computer competencies, may still lack some of the necessary expertise to operate large systems effectively.